Ceramic Tile Guidelines
Important Information on how to purchase Tile
SHADE & TEXTURE VARIATION
Variations in size, color, texture, and pattern are to expected in ceramic flooring. In fact, they should be enjoyed.
These variations are part of what makes ceramic tile such a unique and beautiful choice for your home.
Each Ceramic flooring product is labeled for shade and color variation with one of the following ratings:
• Low – Consistent shade and texture
• Moderate – Moderate shade and texture variation
• High – High shade and texture variation
• Random – Very high shade and texture variation
For a neat, contemporary-looking tile floor, choose a tile with a low shade and texture rating. A tile with a high or random shade and texture rating will achieve a more casual, rustic effect.
P.E.I. (Porcelain Enamel Institute) Wear RatingP.E.I Wear Rating System rate the durability of each tile. The ratings range from Group I to Group V, with Group V being the most durable. Below is a general description of each category.
• Group I - Tiles suitable only for residential bathrooms where softer footwear is worn.
• Group II - Tiles suited to general residential traffic, except kitchens, entrance halls, and other areas subjected to continuous heavy use. For all residential and light commercial interiors such as offices, reception areas and boutiques.
• Group III - Tiles suited for all residential and light commercial interiors such as offices, reception areas and boutiques.
• Group IV - Tiles suited for all residential interior and moderate traffic commercial applications.
• Group V - Recommended for all interior residential and commercial uses.
Important Note: The wear rating of the tile rates only its durability, not its quality or price.
Glaze HardnessThe relative hardness of glazed tile is an important issue that should be addressed when selecting a tile.
The test is performed by scratching the surface of the tile with different minerals and subjectively assigning a Method of Hardness "MOH's" number to the glaze.
The softest mineral used is talc (a #1 rating if no scratch), the hardest is a diamond (a #10 rating if no scratch).
Other minerals of varying hardness that provide MOH's values of five or greater are suitable for most residential floor applications while a value of seven or greater is normally recommended for commercial applications.
Both abrasion resistance and glaze hardness should be addressed when considering using glazed tiles as floor products.
The density of the clay also determines whether the tile is suitable for outdoor use. Tiles that are too porous, absorbing more than 3% moisture, will freeze and crack if installed outdoors in cold climates.
The density of the tile is measured by the amount of water it absorbs. There are four types :
1. Non-vitreous tiles absorb 7% or more of their weight in water and are suited for indoor use only.
2. Semi-vitreous tiles absorb between 3-7% water and are suited for indoor use only.
3. Vitreous Tiles absorb between 0.5-3% water and are suited for both interior and exterior use because they are frost-resistant.
4. Impervious tiles the strongest, absorb between 0-0.5% of their weight in water and are suited for both interior and exterior use because they are frost-resistant.
In this section we are going to cover the procedures for estimating the material needs and installation costs. Although some of the terminology and job requirements may be new to you, estimating for ceramic tile is no more difficult than for wood or vinyl. The key factors in figuring a job’s needs are the same, no matter what product you are installing. They are:
• taking proper measurements
• determining material and labor needs
• applying the costs
A. Facts about Estimating
1. Ceramic Tile is always ordered in full cartons. When the square footage of the job is determined, the salesperson must round it off to the next full carton.
2. The square foot coverage per carton will vary from product to product. Once the tile is selected, the salesperson will refer to the specification area on the front of the board indicating square foot coverage per carton.
3. It is necessary to increase the square footage of a job in order to compensate for breakage and tile cuts. Add 10% for waste laying tile on a straight line pattern. Add 13% waste when laying a pattern on diagonal installation. This percentage is mandatory on each job.
4. After a job is complete, it is customary to leave the customer with several pieces of tile to assure a perfect match in the event future repairs are needed.
5. The trim pieces such as vinyl cap are ordered by the piece. Each vinyl piece comes 4 l/f.
6. Normal floor prep such as minor patching is considered part of the job and is not billed as an extra charge.
7. Other leveling of a floor is a chargeable labor item. Your installation contractor may need to see the job conditions prior to establishing the customer’s cost.
8. Most ceramic installers do not carry the tools necessary to stretch carpet. If the ceramic meets carpet in an area, the restretch will be done by a carpet installer. This is called carpet finishing.
A. Square Footage Formulations
Multiply the length by width to calculate the square footage (S/F) of area.
2. Add 10% for waste laying tile on a straight line pattern. Add 13% waste when laying a pattern on diagonal installation.
3. Divide net S/F by S/F in box to determine the full and partial number of cartons.
4. Round off to the next full box for exact number of full cartons required.
5. Multiply the number of full cartons by S/F per box to determine the total S/F.
Example: Facts: Area is 20’ long and 15’ wide. Tile is packed 16.0 S/F to a carton.
1. 20’ x 15’ = 300 S/F of area.
2. 300 S/F x 1.10 = 330 S/F.
3. 330 divided by 16.0 S/F = 20.63 cartons.
4. Round off 20.63 cartons to 21 total cartons.
5. 21 cartons x 16.0 S/F = 336.0 total S/F.
Cut-tile Base Formulation
Length of wall divided by 2 = number of S/F
Example: 1 piece per standard 3 foot door.
Marble Thresholds Formulation
Measure linear feet of doorway and calculate in 3’-intervals. Each threshold comes 3’ (36”).
Note: Installer will take the larger size (36”) and cut to fit.
Measuring for Door Clearance Formulation
Door should clear height of two tiles. Lay one tile on top of another.
Example: Ceramic over concrete 1/2”, ceramic over wood 1”.
Note: Inform customers so that they may have the door cut prior to installation
E. Steps and Risers (Combined) Formulation
Multiply the width of steps x number of steps = linear feet
Example: 3 feet in width, 3 steps = 9 linear feet
Cement Backer Board & Seam Tape Formulation
Area S/F divided by 15 S/F or 16 S/F = number of sheets
Note: Sheet size is 3’ x 5’ x 1/2” = 15 S/F or 4’ x 4’ x 1/4” = 16 S/F
Use 1 bag of Multi-Set Thinset to adhere approximately 4 sheets of cement backer to plywood subfloor.
Use 1 roll of cement backer seam tape for 50 linear feet of cement backer board.
1 bag of thinset will cover approximately 50 to 65 square feet of ceramic tile or cement backer board.
Example: 100 S/F ceramic tile installation, 2 bags needed.
Example 2: 100 S/F ceramic tile and cement backer board installation, 4 bags needed.
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Coverages of grout will vary by size of tile. The coverage for a 25 lb. bag of either sanded or unsanded grout is:
|Tile Size- Sanded||Approx. Grout - Coverage Per Bag||Tile Size- Unsanded||Approx. Grout - Coverage Per Bag|
|2” x 2”||125 sq. ft.||4-1/4” x 4-1/4”||250 sq. ft.|
|4” x 8” (quarry)||50 sq. ft.||6” x 6”||300 sq. ft|
|6” x 6” (quarry)||55 sq. ft.||8” x 10 ”||525 sq. ft|
|8” x 8” (quarry)||60 sq. ft.|
|6” x 6”||65 sq. ft.|
|8” x 8”||80 sq. ft.|
|10” x 10”||90 sq. ft.|
|12” x 12” (Mexican)||30 sq. ft.|
|12” x 12”||125 sq. ft|
|13” x 13”||130 sq. ft|
|13” x 20”||170 sq. ft|
|16” x 16”||170 sq. ft|
|17” x 17”||190 sq. ft|
|18” x 18”||225 sq. ft|
Floor/Wall Adhesive 1 - 3-1/2 gallon pail of adhesive will cover approximately 130 sq. ft. of ceramic tile
Important Links about our Ceramic Tiles